It’s Dissociative Identity Disorder Awareness Day!

It’s March 5th, the day that folks everywhere who live with the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder gather to spread awareness.

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Research and Essays on DID

To help raise awareness I have made a compilation of some of the papers and essays out there concerning DID. The list is not all comprehensive as there are many more papers out there, but if you are wanting to begin researching DID on your own, this is a good start.

One hint I would give you if you are looking for further research pay close attention to the list of resources at the bottom of any paper.

I am aware that when I copy/pasted the following information that some of the formattings was messed up causing misspelled words etc. Ignore those please, and just enjoy looking up the vital information I’ve provided.

Please, feel free to share these links with your therapists, friends, families and anyone else who is interested in DID.

 

Research Papers—Dissociative Identity Disorder

https://search.nih.gov/search?affiliate=nih&commit=Search&page=29&query=dissociative+identity+disorder&utf8=%E2%9C%93

 Dissociative Identity Disorder – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719457/

A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the …

 

Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3615506/

There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disor …

 

Dissociative Identity Disorders in Korea: Two Recent Cases

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823204/

Although dissociative identity disorder (DID), the most severe of the dissociative disorders, has retained its own diagnostic entity since its …

Dissociative identity disorder: An uncommon psychiatric …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890915/

Sir, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is an enigmatic disorder in psychiatry, with a prevalence of around 0.1-1%. It has been often wrongly …

 

Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910187

The experience of possession should be included in the definition of identity disruption. 4. Should DissociativeTrance Disorder should be included in …

 

Long-term outcome and prognosis of dissociative disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2517058/

Personality disorders were seen in 47.8% (especially borderline, obsessive-compulsive and negativistic personality disorders). More dissociative …

 

Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in Dissociative Identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3233754/

Dissociative identity disorder is characterized by the presence of two or more identities or personality states, each with its own relatively enduring …

Separating Fact from Fiction: An Empirical Examination of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4959824/

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex, posttraumatic, developmental disorder for which we now, after four decades of research, have an …

 

Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24283750

Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit. Sar V(1), Onder C, Kilincaslan A, Zoroglu …

 

The Many Faces of Dissociation: Opportunities for …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4293161/

While dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the most pervasive condition of all dissociative disorders, partial representations of this spectrum may …

 

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4133421/

Among the dissociative disorders, the type that has the most chronic and complex features and that contains all the other dissociative phenomena is …

 

Dissociative identity disorder and prepulse inhibition of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2526371/

Assessment of dissociative diagnosis . Clinical assessment with regards to dissociative diagnosis was obtained through the administration of the …

 

Recent developments in the theory of dissociation

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525127/

Dissociation is the core feature of the dissociative disorders (1-3). Furthermore, dissociative experiences are among the diagnostic criteria for …

 

Regression: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578899/

Dissociative Disorders. … , 23 and dissociative identity disorder (a complex, chronic, posttraumatic psychopathology characterized by alternating …

 

A Case of Dissociative Amnesia With Dissociative Fugue and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578902/

To the Editor: Dissociative fugue is a subtype of dissociative amnesia. Per the DSM-5, dissociative amnesia with dissociative fugue is the “purposeful …

 

Search Results – ( “Dissociative identity disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/?term=%28+%22Dissociative+identity+disorder%22+%29

Guidelines for treating dissociative identity disorder in adults, third revision: summary version. International Society for the Study of Trauma and …

Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227384/

Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis. … Dissociative disorders are a complex syndrome because of multiple expressions and the wide …

 

Dissociative Amnesia and DSM-IV-TR Cluster C Personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2990548/

Dissociative amnesia is a disorder characterized by retrospectively reported memory gaps. These gaps involve an inability to recall personal …

 

Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766827/

Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to …

 

Dissociative identity disorder – PubMed Health

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/?term=Dissociative%20identity%20disorder

The guideline on Borderline Personality Disorder, commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, sets out …

Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766827/

Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to …

 

What Are the Effects of Common Dissociative Drugs on the …

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hallucinogens-dissociative-drugs/what-are-effects-common-dissociative-drugs-brain-body

While the long-term use of most dissociative drugs has not been investigated systematically, research shows that repeated use of PCP can lead to …

 

Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4400262/

Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but …

 

Dissociative Seizures: a Challenge for Neurologists and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3647137/

Persons with dissociative seizures constitute a mixed group with a wide variety of predisposing, precipitating, and maintaining factors. Some 90% have …

 

Dissociative fugue symptoms in a 28-year-old male Nigerian …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680202/

Dissociative disorders are characterized by transient or chronic failures or disruptions of integration of consciousness, memory, perception, identity …

Measuring fragmentation in dissociative identity disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880957/

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is defined in DSM-5 as the presence of two or more distinct personalitystates, and it specifies that dissociativ …

 

Dissociative identity disorder: An empirical overview.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24788904

Dissociative identity disorder: An empirical overview. Dorahy MJ(1), Brand BL, Sar V, Krüger C, Stavropoulos P, Martínez-Taboas A, Lewis-Fernández R …

 

Self-Reported Sleep Disturbances in Patients with …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3928798/

We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) …

 

Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24377974

Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. Ross CA(1), Ferrell L, Schroeder E. Author information: (1)a The …

 

Dissociative Spectrum Disorders in the Primary Care Setting

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC181202/

Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorde …

 

dissociative identity disorder – Books – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books?term=dissociative+identity+disorder&cmd=DetailsSearch

Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management and Prevention. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). … dissociative identity …

 

Dissociative identity disorder – PubMed Health

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0015242/?term=Dissociative%20identity%20disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management and Prevention. NICE Clinical Guidelines – National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK) …

 

Prevalence of dissociative disorders in psychiatric …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16585436/

Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in five (6%) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis, patients with …

 

Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4579511/

Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic …

Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11022508

Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of …

 

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17008145/

Moved Permanently. The document has moved here.

 

The Classification of Hysteria and Related Disorders …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695775/

The DSM-III dissociative disorders included psychogenic amnesia, psychogenic fugue, multiple personality, depersonalization disorder, and atypical dis …

 

From Infant Attachment Disorganization to Adult …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2625289/

In his article, Barach suggested that multiple personality disorder (now known as dissociative identity disorder) was a variant of an “attachment diso …

 

Psychodynamic psychotherapy for complex trauma: targets …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218759/

Other phenomena include derealization (the sense that one is separated from the world), amnesia (particularly around traumatic events), splitting into …

 

Unusual Sleep Experiences, Dissociation, and Schizotypy …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2725210/

The category of dissociative disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22876528

 

Fact or Factitious? A Psychobiological Study of Authentic …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387157/

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a disputed psychiatric disorder. Research findings and clinical observations suggest that DID involves an …

 

Dissociative Disorders Among Chinese Inpatients Diagnosed …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929575/

Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in 2 (0.53%, after weighting) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder …

 

The use of imagery in phase 1 treatment of clients with …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402145/

The dissociative nature of (complex) dissociative disorders. The DSM-IV describes dissociation, i.e., the essential feature of these disorders as “a …

 

Mental illness and violent behavior: the role of dissociation

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5260135/

Individuals with psychological disorders that are highly stigmatized and misunderstood, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder (BPD) …

 

Differences in trauma history and psychopathology between …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3842452/

Differences in trauma history and psychopathology between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring dissociative disorders. … Emrich H. M …

 

Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4055615/

Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study Yolanda R. Schlumpf , 1, * …

 

The multidimensional inventory of dissociation (MID): A …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16769667

The MID measures 14 major facets of pathological dissociation; it has 23 dissociation diagnostic scales that simultaneously operationalize (1) the …

 

Dissociation, PTSD, and Substance … – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341607/

Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD) and dissociation. We studied 77 …

 

Structured interview data on 35 cases of dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8831443

CONCLUSIONS: Dissociative identity disorder has a stable, consistent set of features throughout North America, in the Netherlands, and in Turkey …

 

Somatoform and dissociative disorders in children and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2918316/

In adults, personality disorders (self-defeating, dependent, passive–aggressive, etc.) are reported to be common in patients with somatoform and …

 

Dissociative Tendencies and Facilitated Emotional Processing

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2683754/

When individuals diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder are induced to switch identity states, explicit memory is negatively impacted but …

Dissociative fugue: Recurrent episodes in a young adult

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4525440/

Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one’s customary place of daily …

 

Selective Mutism – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2861522/

Selective mutism may also be explained in the context of a dissociative identity disorder. … Because it is a rare disorderselective mutism remains …

 

Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25545784

Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative …

 

Dissociative disorders in children: behavioral profiles …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8435785

Dissociative disorders in children: behavioral profiles and problems. Putnam FW(1). Author information: (1)National Institute of Mental Health …

 

Dissociative identity disorder and the process of couple …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23282049

Couple therapy in the context of dissociative identity disorder (DID) has been neglected as an area of exploration and development in the couple …

 

Dissociative experiences and their relationship to mood …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758846/

Dissociative experiences and their relationship to mood problems among Arab mothers of disabled children. … dissociative identity disorder … The …

 

Assessment of dissociation among combat-exposed soldiers …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414783/

Assessment of dissociation among combat-exposed soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Barbaros Özdemir, * Cemil Celik, and Taner …

 

Dissociative fugue in the elderly – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802381/

Dissociative phenomena may have strong biological roots, with genetic influences, accounting for about 50% of the variance in twin studies. The …

 

Dissociative seizures | Genetic and Rare Diseases …

rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/13028/dissociative-seizures

Psychiatric conditions associated with PNES include depression, anxiety, somatoform disorder, posttraumatic stress disorderdissociative disorder …

Inter-Identity Autobiographical Amnesia in Patients with …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3399886/

A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociativeamnesia, the inability to recall …

 

Dissociative identity disorder: Medicolegal challenges.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21908758

Persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often present in the criminal justice system rather than the mental health system and perplex …

 

Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22651674/

Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity …

 

The differential diagnosis of epilepsy, pseudoseizures …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10842446

The differential diagnosis of epilepsy, pseudoseizures, dissociative identity disorder, and dissociative disordernot otherwise specified. Bowman …

 

Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439425/

The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional …

 

Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11838024

Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder. Dell PF(1). Author information: (1)Trauma Recovery Center, Norfolk, Virginia 23510, USA …

 

Multiple personality disorder (Concept Id: C0026773)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/44520

dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit …

 

Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5072376/

Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder Günter K. Schiepek , 1 …

 

Dissociative part-dependent biopsychosocial reactions to …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791283/

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the most complex of dissociative disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). According to the Theory …

Dissociative disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17716088

The dissociative disorders, including “psychogenic” or “functional” amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple person …

 

[Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524866

Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that …

 

Dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18652789

Schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (DID) are typically thought of as unrelated syndromes–a genetically based psychotic disorder versus …

 

Validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8317572

OBJECTIVE: The Dissociative Experiences Scale has proved a reliable and valid instrument to measure dissociation in many groups, but its capacity to …

 

An Archetype of the Collaborative Efforts of Psychotherapy …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2922364/

We present a case where dissociative identity disorder was effectively treated with memory retrieval psychotherapy. However, the patient’s comorbid …

 

Reviewing the Dissociative Symptoms in Patients With …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078688/

The term “dissociation” refers to a disorder in normal functioning of perception, memory, identity or consciousness . Although, dissociation is a …

 

Dissociative Disorder Presenting as Catatonia

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2949936/

Dissociative Disorder Presenting as Catatonia. … This report aims to highlight the presentation of dissociativedisorders with catatonia. It also …

 

Journal of Trauma & Dissociation – Journals – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/journals/j-trauma-dissociation/

A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity …

 

Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770862/

Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma …

Return to work: a case of PTSD, dissociative identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21248420

Return to work: a case of PTSD, dissociative identity disorder, and satanic ritual abuse. Precin P(1). Author information: (1)New York Institute of …

 

STRESS AND TRAUMA: Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204471/

INTRODUCTION. Dissociative disorders were described prior to 1900 1, 2 but many years passed with little interest in this spectrum of psychiatric …

 

Recurrent Dissociative Fugue – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868095/

Dissociative fugue is the least studied and most poorly understood of the dissociative disorders. It may be an altered state, out of traumatic …

 

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2567868/

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Dissociative Disorders, PTSD, and Healthy Volunteers. … Dissociative disorders (DD), along with …

 

Dispelling myths about dissociative identity disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24865199

Dispelling myths about dissociative identity disorder treatment: an empirically based approach. Brand BL, Loewenstein RJ, Spiegel D. OBJECTIVE: Some …

 

Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964156/

Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder. … Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline …

 

Compulsive symptoms in dissociative (conversion) disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2932994/

The release of obsessive-compulsive symptoms is said to occur only in those who are constitutionally predisposed. In this context, the case of a young …

 

Early experience, structural dissociation, and emotional …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4579498/

Early experience, structural dissociation, and emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: the role of insecure and disorganized …

 

Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163757/

Severe dissociative symptoms that continue beyond their adaptive capacity may lead to dissociative identity disorder (DID), which involves a …

Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755270/

The cultural perspective on psychiatric diagnosis has experienced uneven levels of reception and … Cultural factors in specific diagnoses such as …

 

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10080263

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Assessment of dissociative identity disorder with the …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7568607

Assessment of dissociative identity disorder with the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Ellason JW, Ross CA, Fuchs DL. 96 patients with a …

 

Dissociative disorders and suicidality in psychiatric …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18195639

Eighty-two of these patients completed structured interviews for dissociative disorders, borderline personalitydisorder, and trauma history (dissocia …

 

Dissociative visual hallucinations (Concept Id: C0424085)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/602865

Dissociative visual hallucinations (247746009) … Auditory hallucinations in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia with and without a …

 

The impact of the therapeutic alliance on treatment …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3946510/

The impact of the therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in patients with dissociative disorders. Elisabeth Cronin, … The APA categorizes …

 

The comorbidity of multiple personality disorder and DSM …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946024

The comorbidity of multiple personality disorder and DSM-III-R axis II disorders. Fink D(1). Author information: (1)Dissociative Disorders Unit …

 

DISSOCIATION REDUCTION IN BODY … – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1965500/

Dissociation as a sequela of childhood sexual abuse has been primarily studied among a psychiatric population. There is substantial evidence that …

 

The diagnosis of multiple personality disorder based on …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2295888

The diagnosis of multiple personality disorder based on subtle dissociative signs. Franklin J. Patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD) often …

 

Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310188/

Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the DissociativeEncoding Hypothesis … investigated a …

 

Role of mindfulness in dissociative disorders among …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100126/

The prevalence rate of dissociative disorders in psychiatric settings is around 10% and is more common in adolescentsDissociative disorders in …

 

Pain sensitivity and neural processing during dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2861134/

Stress-induced dissociative states involving analgesia are a common feature of borderline personality disorder(BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder …

 

 

Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17961993/

Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder. Sar V(1), Unal SN, Ozturk E. Author information: (1)Clinical Psychotherapy …

 

Multiple personality: psychoanalytic perspectives.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7275499

Multiple personality: psychoanalytic perspectives. Berman E. Multiple personality, which played a central role in psychiatry and psychology in the era …

 

The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4431999/

In a study of 10 female patients with borderline personality disorder, 12 patients with a diagnosis of depression, 15 patients with dissociative …

 

Axis-I comorbidity in female patients with dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21278542

Axis-I comorbidity in female patients with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative identity disorder not otherwise specified. Rodewald F(1) …

 

Examining potential contraindications for prolonged …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406222/

Patients with dissociative disorders are included, as long as the dissociative symptoms do not outweigh the PTSD symptoms. With regard to Axis II diso …

 

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) in clinical practice …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26400453

OBJECTIVES: To identify problems that interfere with the recognition, diagnosis and management of people with dissociative identity disorder (DID) …

 

Relationships of Dissociative Disorders and Personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3905559/

Relationships of Dissociative Disorders and Personality Traits in Opium Addicts on Methadone Treatment Alireza Ghafarinezhad , MD, 1 Ghodratollah …

 

Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068498

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with …

 

Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4579513/

In adult psychiatric samples, childhood trauma history was more strongly related to paranoid personality disorderthan BPD and both PTSD and dissociat …

 

Dissociative stupor, mutism and amnesia in a young man

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440920/

Enhancing coping skills and strengthening personality organization prevent symptom transfer and produce better long-term prognosis. The association of …

 

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22425531

Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation …

 

Interidentity memory transfer in dissociative identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18729620

Controversy surrounding dissociative identity disorder (DID) has focused on conflicting findings regarding the validity and nature of interidentity …

 

Risk and Protective Factors for the Onset of Mental …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236306/

6 Risk and Protective Factors for the Onset of Mental Disorders. … dissociative thought processes, and primary negative symptoms such as emotional …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19724751

 

Interidentity memory transfer in dissociative identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18729620

Controversy surrounding dissociative identity disorder (DID) has focused on conflicting findings regarding the validity and nature of interidentity …

 

Is the Dissociative Experiences Scale able to identify …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4902245/

Is the Dissociative Experiences Scale able to identify detachment and compartmentalization symptoms? … Furthermore, patients with dissociative disor …

 

Epidemiology of multiple personality disorder and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946021/

A recent survey of a large sample of the general population in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, showed that multiple personality disorder related to …

 

Post-traumatic stress disorder – NCBI Bookshelf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56506/

The ICD–10 dissociative (conversion) disorders include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative disorders of movement and sensation, and …

 

The Role of Dissociation in the Cycle of Violence

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921463/

The primary aim of this study was to examine the role of dissociation in the relationship between child maltreatment and intimate partner violence …

 

Developmental trauma, complex PTSD, and the current …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402152/

As disorders with highest prevalence of chronic traumatization in early years of life, dissociative disorders and personality disorder of borderline …

 

Characteristics of patients with multiple personality and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2195134

Characteristics of patients with multiple personality and dissociative disorders on psychological testing. Armstrong JG(1), Loewenstein RJ. Author …

 

Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4820560/

Dissociative fugue is a rare clinical entity which can recur like any other dissociative disorder when the individual faces exceptional perceived …

 

Clinical hypnosis for rapid recovery from dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9385721

Clinical hypnosis for rapid recovery from dissociative identity disorder. Boyd JD. Numerous anecdotal reports and textbooks from distinguished mental …

Gender differences in dissociation. A dimensional approach.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12766315

Gender differences in dissociation. A dimensional approach. Spitzer C(1), Klauer T, Grabe HJ, Lucht M, Stieglitz RD, Schneider W, Freyberger HJ …

 

The psychological organization of multiple personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946023

The psychological organization of multiple personality disordered patients as revealed in psychological testing. Armstrong J(1). Author information …

 

Cognitive abuse within the incestuous family as a factor …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23682769

The polarized nature of the ongoing controversies surrounding the genesis and validity of dissociative identity disorder pit advocates who see and …

 

First Reported Case of Lorazepam-Assisted Interview in a …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139079/

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is one of the most fascinating disorders in psychiatry. The arduous search to reveal the obscurity of this disord …

 

Trauma-related self-defining memories and future goals in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27770748

(4) Radboud University Nijmegen, Overwaal Center for Anxiety Disorders, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. This study examined the content of self-defining …

 

Ictal symptoms of anxiety, avoidance behaviour, and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2117432/

Ictal symptoms of anxiety, avoidance behaviour, and dissociation in patients with dissociative seizures … DS patients’ scores were not particularly …

PubMed – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23394228

 

Grey matter alterations in patients with depersonalization …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4275327/

Depersonalization disorder is often chronic and severely disabling. 1, 2 Its prevalence is estimated to lie between 0.8% and 2.4% in the general …

 

Differentiating multiple personality disorder and complex …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2912820

A number of reports have suggested that some cases of multiple personality disorder might be due to temporal lobe epileptic discharges. We have …

 

Identity disorder (Concept Id: C0236819)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/536641

Identity disorder (66936004); Identity problem (66936004) … The mirror has two faces: dissociative identity disorder and the defence of pathological …

 

Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20938869

Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population. Ross CA(1), Ness L. Author information: (1)The Colin A. Ross …

 

Dispute over the multiple personality disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17037099

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) could also be referred to as multiple personality disorder (MPD). Due to rare occurrence and difficulty in its’ …

 

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611729

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Multiple personality and related dissociative phenomena in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7294186

Multiple personality and related dissociative phenomena in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Schenk L, Bear D. Many patients with temporal lobe …

 

[Multiple personality disorder. Presentation of 2 cases …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7991009

[Multiple personality disorder. Presentation of 2 cases and a model of the etiology]. [Article in German] Pfeifer S(1), Brenner L, Spengler W. Author …

 

Clinical phenomenology of child and adolescent …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1429408/

Children with multiple personality disorder (MPD) differ from those with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) in having more …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21104486

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Search Results – Dissociative disorder not otherwise …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/?term=%28+%22Dissociative+disorder+not+otherwise+specified%22+%29

[Study of dissociative disorders and depersonalization in a sample of young adult French population]. Moyano O, Claudon P, Colin V, Svatos J, Thiébaut …

 

Clinical phenomenology of child and adolescent …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1429408/

Children with multiple personality disorder (MPD) differ from those with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) in having more …

 

Possession Experiences in Dissociative Identity Disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21667381

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Conversion disorder: advances in our understanding

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091899/

Dissociative identity disorder. Depersonalization disorder. … The second condition, conversion disorder, best fits the clinical description of …

 

Multiple personality disorder: an overview.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2252069

Multiple personality disorder is understood today as chronic dissociative psychopathology that most often develops in response to severe abuse in …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477293

 

Dissociative paraplegia after epidural anesthesia: a case …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3610243/

In contrast, DSM-IV classifies CDs among the somatoform disorders, postulating long-term and chronic disordersincluding, among others …

 

Pain-determined dissociation episodes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15102254

The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of increased pain levels on the genesis of two types of dissociation disordersdissociative …

 

Dissociative disorder in children. A case study. – PubMed …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=schizophrenia+mistaken+for+adhd&cmd=DetailsSearch

The presence of primary symptoms, like dissociative amnesia and very high scores in CDC (23, mean score for MPD) and in A-DES (85, mean 4.2) are …

Kluft RP (1999) An overview of the psychotherapy of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10586296

 

Dissociation & multiple personality disorder. A challenge …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8421264

Dissociation & multiple personality disorder. A challenge for psychosocial nurses. Stafford LL(1). Author information: (1)University of Texas Health …

 

 

MMPI-2 Item Endorsements in Dissociative Identity Disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26944745

Elevated scores on some MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2) validity scales are common among patients with dissociative identity disorder …

 

MMPI-2 Item Endorsements in Dissociative Identity Disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26944745

Elevated scores on some MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2) validity scales are common among patients with dissociative identity disorder …

 

Involuntary Memories and Dissociative Amnesia: Assessing …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4189812/

The Present Studies. The present studies examines the idea of a dissociation between voluntary and involuntary access to traumatic or stressful events …

 

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) in Japan: A forensic …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921454

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) in Japan: A forensic case report and the recent increase in reports of DID. Sekine YU. The subject of this report …

 

Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior among a …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3342020/

The SCID was used to assess for current PTSD diagnosis (First et al., 2002) and a structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV-TR (American …

 

Dissociative identity disorder. – National Center for …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15660715

Dissociative identity disorder. Barry-Walsh J. Comment on Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2004 Jan-Feb;38(1-2):47-55. PMID: 15660715 [PubMed – indexed for …

 

The detection of dissociative identity disorder by …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537322

The detection of dissociative identity disorder by Northern Irish clinical psychologists and psychiatrists: a clinical vignettes study. … completed …

 

Dissociative amnesia in dissociative disorders and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678926

Dissociative amnesia in dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: self-rating assessment in a college population. Sar V(1), Alioğlu …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819923

 

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and movement disorders

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4828676/

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and movement disorders. A comparative review. … CD has been classified as a dissociative disorder according to …

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23197123

 

Treatment outcome for dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9734568

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1998 Sep;155(9):1304-5. Treatment outcome for dissociative identity disorder. Powell RA, Howell AJ. Comment on Am J Psychiatry …

 

A right hemisphere safety backup at work: hypotheses for …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790686

With dissociative identity disorder (DID), the theory is consistent with up to six alters that have executive control and one trauma identity state …

 

Indian culture and psychiatry

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146223/

Chaturvedi SK et al. in their work, “ Dissociative disorders in a psychiatry institute in India – A selected review and patterns over a decade” …

 

EEG studies of two multiple personalities and a control.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7165480

EEG studies of two multiple personalities and a control. Coons PM, Milstein V, Marley C. There are few reports of EEG findings in patients with …

 

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Indian culture and psychiatry

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146223/

Chaturvedi SK et al. in their work, “ Dissociative disorders in a psychiatry institute in India – A selected review and patterns over a decade” …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11434230

 

Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877775/

Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults. … Although the use of the DES-T for …

 

Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26401297

Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociativedisorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type …

 

 

 

Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835500/

In describing the construct of dissociation, Schmahl and Bohus (2007) have differentiated dissociative traits (e.g., those related to DPD or DID) from …

 

Middleton W, Butler J (1998) Dissociative identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084343

 

EEG studies of two multiple personalities and a control.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7165480

EEG studies of two multiple personalities and a control. Coons PM, Milstein V, Marley C. There are few reports of EEG findings in patients with …

 

Boysen GA. The scientific status of childhood dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829044

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Cognitive inhibition and interference in dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16087154

Cognitive inhibition and interference in dissociative identity disorder: the effects of anxiety on specific executive functions. Dorahy MJ(1) …

 

The Relationships between Early Trauma, Dissociation, and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124194/

The Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) 42 is a 28-item self-report scale. This scale is not a diagnostic tool; rather, it serves as a …

 

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a treatment review …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3523560/

A review of the literature examining treatments for dissociative disorders such as dissociative identity disorder, depersonalization disorder, and dis …

 

Dissociative symptomatology in cancer patients

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338656/

Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological …

 

Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3783140

The scale was administered to between 10 and 39 subjects in each of the following populations: normal adults, late adolescent college students, and …

 

 

Functional neurologic disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26039857

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neurologic disorders, also called psychogenic, nonorganic, conversion, and dissociative disorders, are among the most …

 

A brief CBT intervention for depersonalisation …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5154060/

The reviewers concluded that there was ‘solid empirical evidence’ that individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have more frequent, and severe, d …

 

Dissociation and borderline personality disorder: an …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187714

Dissociation and borderline personality disorder: an update for clinicians. … In particular, this review examines BPD’s comorbidity with the dissoci …

 

Dissociative experiences and disorders among women who …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8221221

The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) were used to collect data. The results indicated …

 

Dissociation and borderline personality disorder: an …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187714

Dissociation and borderline personality disorder: an update for clinicians. … In particular, this review examines BPD’s comorbidity with the dissoci …

 

Common Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs | National …

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hallucinogens-dissociative-drugs/what-are-dissociative-drugs

Ketamine—also known as K, Special K, or cat Valium—is a dissociative currently used as an anesthetic for humans as well as animals. Much of the …

 

NIMH » Schizophrenia

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/index.shtml

Schizophrenia is not dissociative identity disorder (formerly called multiple personality disorder or split personality). While some of the signs may …

 

Dissociative experiences and disorders among women who …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8221221

The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) were used to collect data. The results indicated …

 

 

Perospirone for treatment of dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16194271

  1. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005 Oct;59(5):624. Perospirone for treatment of dissociative identity disorder. Okugawa G, Nobuhara K, Kitashiro M …

 

Dissociation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3589990/

Although the proposal for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5 is supported by considerable clinical and …

 

Evidence for phase-based psychotherapy as a treatment for …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27689689

Evidence for phase-based psychotherapy as a treatment for dissociative identity disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder and alcohol …

 

Multiple personality as a post-traumatic stress disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6718261

  1. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1984 Mar;7(1):101-10. Multiple personality as a post-traumatic stress disorder. Spiegel D. This article examines multiple …

 

Emotion Modulation in PTSD: Clinical and Neurobiological …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3226703/

A recent study revealed a similar pattern of increased mid-cingulate and insula activation in patients with borderline personality disorder and …

 

[Dissociative identity disorder in children and adolescents].

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9332056

  1. Harefuah. 1997 Jul;133(1-2):36-40. [Dissociative identity disorder in children and adolescents]. [Article in Hebrew] Eldar Z, Stein D, Toren P …

 

Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279109

Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients. … Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative di …

 

The wreathing protocol: the imbrication of hypnosis and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11269630

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), a chronic childhood onset posttraumatic stress disorder, is currently recognized as a treatable condition. It is …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8425773

 

Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4901519/

Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on motor conversion disorder. … The International …

 

Understanding the Impact of Trauma – Trauma-Informed Care …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207191/

At times, dissociation can be very pervasive and symptomatic of a mental disorder, such as dissociative identity disorder (DID; formerly known as …

 

An occupational therapy perspective in the treatment of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8109606

An occupational therapy perspective in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Waid KM. Adult persons with multiple personality disorder have …

 

Scientific study of the dissociative disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17917478

Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76(6):400-1; author reply 401-3. Scientific study of the dissociative disorders. Dalenberg C, Loewenstein R, Spiegel D …

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Understanding the Impact of Trauma – Trauma-Informed Care …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207191/

At times, dissociation can be very pervasive and symptomatic of a mental disorder, such as dissociative identity disorder (DID; formerly known as …

 

Conversion disorder | Genetic and Rare Diseases …

rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6191/conversion-disorder

Some people with conversion disorder may experience seizures or hallucinations. People are more at risk for a conversion disorder if they also have a …

[Dissociative disorder and self-injury].

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22117397

When dissociative disorder coexists with self-injury, it implies self-punishment and a wish to be understood by others. Although many cases of …

 

 

 

Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4602697/

Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors. Jani Nöthling, MA, Kees Lammers …

The parental fitness of mothers with multiple personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3594287

The parental fitness of mothers with multiple personality disorder: a preliminary study. Kluft

Self-destructive behavior in patients with dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12374476

Self-destructive behavior in patients with dissociative disorders. Saxe GN(1), Chawla N, Van der Kolk B. Author information: (1)Department of Child …

Disinformation about dissociation: Dr Joel Paris’s notions …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23538984

Disinformation about dissociation: Dr Joel Paris’s notions about dissociative identity disorder. Brand B, Loewenstein RJ, Spiegel D. Comment in J Nerv …

MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER FOLLOWING CONVERSION AND …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957012/

A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria …

Body Integrity Identity Disorder – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326051/

Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental …

Possession and jinn – PubMed Central (PMC)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181833/

 

In ICD 10 17 trance or possession disorders are classified under dissociative (conversion) disordersdisordersin which there is a temporary loss of …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9783660

 

 

 

Hallucinations: A Systematic Review of Points of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5216859/

For example, daytime interference is reported in 84% of individuals with dissociative identity disorder. 44 Similarly, lack of control over the onset …

 

The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138327/

 

The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Personality Disorders. Alexis K. Matusiewicz, BA, a, b Christopher J. Hopwood, … Personality d …

Predicting Addiction Potential on the Basis of Early …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4331658/

A score higher than 30 indicates high probability of dissociative disorders and PTSD, and scores over 40 express high probability of dissociative …

 

Kluft RP (1996) Treating the traumatic memories of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8659633

 

Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5034153/

Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a …

 

Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC362878/

In cases of dissociative disorderspersonality disorders, and drug abuse, the Cohen Kappa coefficient was about 0.45. This research data was …

 

Multiple personality, dissociation, and C.G. Jung’s …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2808130

In a comparison of the major tenets of the complex theory with recent empirical research on multiple personality, it is demonstrated that essential …

 

Recognizing traumatic dissociation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16585425

Dissociative Disorders/diagnosis* Dissociative Disorders/psychology; Dissociative Disorders/therapy; Humans; Iodobenzenes; Life Change Events; Models …

 

PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308496/

The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: Rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications. Depression and Anxiety …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9629561/

Type and Timing of Childhood Maltreatment and Severity of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438058/

The DES was created based on clinical perceptions of dissociative symptomatology, and was validated by showing higher DES scores in subjects with …

 

The clinical phenomenology of multiple personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3711025

The clinical phenomenology of multiple personality disorder: review of 100 recent cases. Putnam FW, Guroff JJ, Silberman EK, Barban L, Post RM. The …

 

Prevalence of Dissociative Disorders Among Women in the …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157389

 

Integrative Psychotherapy Works – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707273/

Integrative psychotherapy. … Why integrative psychotherapy worksIntegrative psychotherapy fits different patients, problems and contexts …

 

[Psychiatric comorbidity in dissociative disorders in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7808566

We studied consecutively 50 neurologic inpatients of a university neurological department with dissociative(conversion) disorders with regard to …

 

Somatic symptoms in multiple personality disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2710914

Somatic symptoms in multiple personality disorder. Ross CA, Heber S, Norton GR, Anderson G. A structured interview, the Dissociative Disorders …

 

Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138496/

In brief, a major tenet of the structural theory is that persons with dissociative disorders, and in particular those with dissociative identity …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16173357

 

Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977031/

Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two-dimensional diagnostic model of the impact of trauma and neglect … The current paper presents …

 

Psychobiological research on Dissociative Identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27396984

Psychobiological research on Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): A methodological note. Merckelbach H(1), Rasquin S(2). Author information …

Progress in understanding conversion disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2416752/

Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and …

 

Figure 2-1: Symptoms and Syndromes Associated With …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64895/box/A64235/?report=objectonly

Figure 2-1: Symptoms and Syndromes Associated With Childhood Abuse and Neglect

 

Dissociative astasia-abasia (Concept Id: C0349741)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/578910

Dissociative astasia-abasia. MedGen UID: 578910 … The differential diagnosis of epilepsy, pseudoseizures, dissociative identity disorder, and dissoc …

 

Pharmacotherapy of dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8968469

  1. Ann Pharmacother. 1996 Dec;30(12):1498-9. Pharmacotherapy of dissociative identity disorder. Markowitz JS, Gill HS. PMID: 8968469 [PubMed – indexed …

 

Kluft RP (1991) Clinical presentations of multiple …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946026

 

Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3226705/

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with long-term changes in neurobiology. Brain areas involved in the stress response include the …

 

Pharmacotherapy of dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8968469

  1. Ann Pharmacother. 1996 Dec;30(12):1498-9. Pharmacotherapy of dissociative identity disorder. Markowitz JS, Gill HS. PMID: 8968469 [PubMed – indexed …

 

Effectiveness of lorazepam-assisted interviews in an …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107513/

Dissociative disorders include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder, depersonalization disorder, and dissociative …

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dissociation – mental defense mechanism (Concept Id: C0086168)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/88527

Dissociative amnesia in dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: self-rating assessment in a college population. Sar V, Alioğlu F …

 

Kluft RP (1991) Clinical presentations of multiple …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946026

 

Guidelines for treating dissociative identity disorder in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537324

  1. J Trauma Dissociation. 2005;6(4):69-149. Guidelines for treating dissociative identity disorderin adults (2005). International Society for Study …

 

Panic disorder and dissociation – comparison with healthy …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20038926

Panic disorder and dissociation – comparison with healthy controls. Pastucha P(1), Prasko J, Grambal A, Latalova K, Sigmundova Z, Sykorova T …

 

Identity disorder of childhood (Concept Id: C1400365)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/730573

Identity disorder of childhood (270291000119109) Recent clinical studies. Etiology. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17444294

 

8 A Brief Overview of Specific Mental Disorders and Cross …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64204/

The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder and are not …

 

Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)–is the amputation …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19132621

Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)–is the amputation of healthy limbs ethically justified? Müller S(1). … Neurological results suggest that …

 

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder—a Diagnostic and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952004/

In addition to trauma-related disorders in the narrow sense (PTSD, complex PTSD, lasting personality change following extreme stress, dissociative …

 

 

 

 

 

Type and timing of adverse childhood experiences …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4992284/

Type and timing of adverse childhood experiences differentially affect severity of PTSD, dissociative and depressive symptoms in adult inpatients …

 

The Korean Version of the Adolescent Dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796064/

Dissociative disorder is defined as a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, and perception of the …

 

AMNESIA FOR AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY: A CASE SERIES

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2954401/

Functional amnesia for autobiographical memory is a rare but pathognomic sign of dissociative disorders. Amnesia for part of one’s personal history is …

 

Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3569846/

The mean score across all criteria was calculated for each disorder. Because this is a community sample, we chose to focus on personality disorder …

 

AMNESIA FOR AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY: A CASE SERIES

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2954401/

Functional amnesia for autobiographical memory is a rare but pathognomic sign of dissociative disorders. Amnesia for part of one’s personal history is …

 

[PDF] Social Anxiety Disorder: More Than Just Shyness

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/social-anxiety-disorder-more-than-just-shyness/508-social-anxiety-disorder_153750.pdf

SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER: More Than Just Shyness … anxiety disorder can last for many years or a lifetime and prevent a person from reaching his or …

 

Misattributing the Source of Self-Generated …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838604/

Misattributing the Source of Self-Generated Representations Related to Dissociative and Psychotic Symptoms. … Dissociative Identity Disorder …

 

The Remains of the Day in Dissociative Amnesia

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061789/

Dissociative amnesia might co-exist with other psychiatric conditions, such as major depressive disorder, bulimia nervosa, somatoform disorders and …

 

High-functioning multiple personality patients. Three cases.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3783139

High-functioning multiple personality patients. Three cases. Kluft RP. This article describes the circumstances of the diagnosis of three of a group …

 

Commentary on “Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22651675

Commentary on “Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia” (Laddis & Dell). Moskowitz A(1). Author information …

 

Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness: Exploring …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440663/

We envision the 4-D model as a transdiagnostic approach to studying trauma-related disorders, including borderline personality disorderdissociative …

 

Why is dissociative identity disorder infrequent in France?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7573597

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Oct;152(10):1530-1. Why is dissociative identity disorder infrequent inFrance? Darves-Bornoz JM, Degiovanni A, Gaillard P.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1500935/

 

Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4091823/

Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities. … other anxiety 55 and affective disorders, 50 addictions, 56–58 …

 

Transient dissociative identity disorder after …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11005059

  1. J ECT. 2000 Sep;16(3):314-6. Transient dissociative identity disorder after electroconvulsive therapy. Ellison JM, Chu JA, Henry ME. PMID:

 

Ferenczi’s concept of identification with the aggressor …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24603172

Ferenczi’s concept of identification with the aggressor: understanding dissociative structure with interacting victim and abuser self-states. Howell …

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9167512

 

Intravenous diazepam for dissociative disorder: memory …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832603

Intravenous diazepam for dissociative disorder: memory lost and found. Ballew L(1), Morgan Y, Lippmann S. Author information: (1)University of …

 

Screening for dissociative disorders in children and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7743093

Screening for dissociative disorders in children and adolescents. Pinegar C. This paper describes the concept of dissociation as it might be assessed …

Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28189923

Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan. … Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders …

 

Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441039/

This was the case for Social Anxiety Disorder, Agoraphobia, Specific Phobia, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Dissociative Identity Disorder, among …

 

Neglect of the complex: why psychotherapy for post …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4478904/

Dialectical behaviour therapy provides techniques for safety and stabilisation of borderline personality disorders18 and some of its elements have …

 

Turkish dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9247428

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1997 Aug;154(8):1179. Turkish dissociative identity disorder. Chodoff P. PMID: 9247428 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Publication …

PubMed Abstract – National Center for Biotechnology …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19042797

Moved Permanently. The document has moved here.

 

Trauma, Dissociation, and Antiretroviral Adherence among …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118254/

Among individuals with borderline personality disorderdissociative states have been shown to inhibit emotional, amygdala-based learning during …

 

 

Multiple personality disorder and false memory syndrome.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7788115/

Multiple personality disorder and false memory syndrome. Merskey H. Comment in Br J Psychiatry. 1995 Aug;167(2):264; author reply 265-6. … Dissociat …

 

Prior peritraumatic dissociative experiences affect …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3295227/

For instance, individuals with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) displayed either hyperarousal, hypoarousal, or no physiological change in response …

 

Neuroimaging during Trance State: A Contribution to the …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500298/

Borderline personality disorder and history of childhood abuse were based on data from the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) , and …

 

Personality diathesis explains the interrelationships …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3104880/

Personality diathesis explains the interrelationships between personality disorder and other mental conditions. … The origin of personality …

 

Childhood dissociation as a precursor of mood disorder: A …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4314908/

There have been proposed hypotheses of dissociative identity disorders (DIDs) and bipolar disorder as been lying on a continuum based on the phasic …

 

Screening for multiple personality disorder with the …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8037267

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Aug;151(8):1248-50. Screening for multiple personality disorder with the dissociativeexperiences scale. Piper A Jr.

 

Cognitive behavioral hypnotherapy for dissociative disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22655334

Cognitive behavioral hypnotherapy for dissociative disorders. Fine CG(1). Author information: (1)Jaria1@verizon.net Dissociative disorders (DD) …

 

Response to dissociative identity disorder letters from …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23538985

Response to dissociative identity disorder letters from Martínez-Taboas et al. and Brand et al. Paris J. Comment on J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012 …

 

The relationship of psychological trauma with …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440428/

The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23) or skin picking disorder (n=44), and healthy controls (n=37). Beck …

 

Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181584/

Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma … affective lability, and aggression against self and others, 84% suffered from …

 

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Stress Related …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2746940/

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Stress Related Disorders. Arieh Y. Shalev, M.D … one could see dissociative identity disorders, reactive …

 

 

 

 

 

 

The place of trauma in the treatment of personality disorders

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393534/

In complex PTSD, clinicians and patients struggle with long-standing and multifaceted problems (especially suffering from personality disordersdisso …

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8434690

 

New disease: A patient with distinct dissociative and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263119/

A patient with distinct dissociative and hallucinatory fugues. … loss of personal identity, inability to recall his past and amnesia for the fugue …

 

Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626926/

The depersonalization disorder (DPD) is currently classified, in the DSM-IV-TR, as a dissociative disorder , in which DP symptoms persist chronically …

7795565 – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7795565

 

A Latent Class Analysis of … – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3390764/

Peritraumatic dissociation is a diagnostic criterion for acute stress disorder and has been shown to prospectively predict the development of PTSD. 1 …

 

Effects of hypnosis on the features of multiple …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2816787/

Effects of hypnosis on the features of multiple personality disorder. Ross CA, Norton GR. The authors compared 57 patients with multiple personality d …

 

Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3621904/

Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness … essentially involves some degree of division or …

 

A study in dualism: The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2738358/

  1. L. Stevenson’s novel, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hydeis a prominent example of Victorian fiction. The names Jekyll and Hyde have …

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Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3621904/

Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness … essentially involves some degree of division or …

 

Assessment of ego functioning in multiple personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1865299

The dissociative disorder known as multiple personality disorder (MPD) presents a diagnostic challenge to psychological assessment techniques. A case …

 

Recovered memories of abuse and dissociative identity …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9926090

  1. Br J Psychiatry. 1998 Dec;173:537-8. Recovered memories of abuse and dissociative identity disorder. van der Hart O, Nijenhuis ER. Comment on Br J …

 

Re: the persistence of folly: a critical examination of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16408531

  1. Can J Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;50(12):813; author reply 814. Re: the persistence of folly: a critical examination of dissociative identity disorder.

 

12th EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON TRAUMATIC STRESS – HUMAN …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402108/

12 th EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON TRAUMATIC STRESS – HUMAN RIGHTS & PSYCHOTRAUMATOLOGY. … especially the anti-dissociative and the self-punishment …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20579513/

 

Dissociative disorders and complex partial seizures.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1853983

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1991 Aug;148(8):1106-7. Dissociative disorders and complex partial seizures. Peterson WH. Erratum in Am J Psychiatry 1991 …

16884444 – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16884444

 

Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821932/

Stressors in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder may include day-to-day problems such as difficulties in school or family …

 

Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165723/

There has long been debate about whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD) is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) …

 

Reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volume in dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17162771

Reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volume in dissociative identity disorder: not such clear evidence. Spiegel D. Comment on Am J Psychiatry. 2006 …

 

Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199330/

Dissociative (identity) disorder 1,3,5,7 was excluded in four of seven studies. Other comorbid conditions like eating disorders, 3 bipolar disorders …

 

Identity and Introject in dissociative disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8991310

In this study, identity is assessed with the SASB in a sample of women with dissociative disorder (n = 25) and a nonpatient clinical contrast group (n …

 

Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729089/

These disorders include abuse-related PTSD, depression associated with early abuse, borderline personality disorder (BPD) associated with early abuse …

 

Psychometric characteristics of the somatoform …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9491436

Patients with dissociative identity disorder scored significantly higher compared to patients with dissociative disorder nos. Sensitivity (94%) and …

 

Spontaneous self-hypnosis in multiple personality disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6718264

Spontaneous self-hypnosis in multiple personality disorder. Bliss EL. The authors posits that the central mechanisms in cases of multiple personality …

 

The weakness of the sociocognitive model of dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23639893

  1. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013 May;201(5):438. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31828e10e8. The weakness of the sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder

 

Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561345/

Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness. … dreams and the dissociative states were also reported in cases …

 

Dissociative identity disorder may be relieved by the …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22772693

Dissociative identity disorder may be relieved by the combined treatments of mirtazapine and risperidone: case report of an adolescent. Lai CH. PMID …

The Psychospiritual Clinician’s Handbook: Alternative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470654/

Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the difficult-to-treat dissociative identity disorder (DID), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and narcissistic person …

 

Childhood or adolescent identity disorder (Concept Id …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/507835

Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit. Sar V, Onder C, Kilincaslan A, Zoroglu SS …

View at PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16337235/

 

Djinnati Syndrome in Baluchestan: The Role of Traumatic …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4331653/

A dissociate disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) is a disorder that includes a dissociative symptom (i.e. disturbance in the usually integrated …

 

Reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volume in dissociative …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16946196

Reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volume in dissociative identity disorder: not such clear evidence. Smeets T, Jelicic M, Merckelbach H. Comment in Am …

 

Association of Trauma-Related Disorders and Dissociation …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4339099/

Association of Trauma-Related Disorders and Dissociation with Four Idioms of Distress Among Latino Psychiatric Outpatients. Roberto Lewis-Fernández …

 

Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820917/

Exclusion criteria included the presence of antisocial PD, current psychotic episode, dissociative identity disorderor severe alcohol or drug …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8401385

 

Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820917/

Exclusion criteria included the presence of antisocial PD, current psychotic episode, dissociative identity disorderor severe alcohol or drug …

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tracking Potentiating States of Dissociation: An Intensive …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4987537/

Indeed, fantasy proneness is a personality trait that is proposed to map onto dissociation, and fantasy intrusions into waking states are proposed to …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225185

 

Racial and ethnic differences in dissociation: an …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197710

Racial and ethnic differences in dissociation: an examination of the dissociative experiences scale in a nonclinical population. Douglas AN(1). Author …

 

A review of dissociative identity disorder research …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23639896

  1. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013 May;201(5):440-3. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31828e1239. A review of dissociative identity disorder research: responseto …

 

Increased anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575721/

Increased anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus activation in Complex PTSD during encoding of negative words. … study with an emotional …

 

Corrigendum: Self-Reported Sleep Disturbances in Patients …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4150349/

This corrects the article “Self-Reported Sleep Disturbances in Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and How …

 

Dissociation versus posttraumatic stress: cortisol and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18930323

Simeon D(1), Yehuda R, Knutelska M, Schmeidler J. Author information: (1)Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY …

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22455326

 

Dissociative identity disorder and temporal lobe …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16620321

Dissociative identity disorder and temporal lobe involvement: replication and a cautionary note. Sheehan W, Thurber S, Sewall B. Comment in Aust N Z J …

 

Evaluation of the evidence for the trauma and fantasy …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22409505

Evaluation of the evidence for the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation. Dalenberg CJ(1), Brand BL, Gleaves DH, Dorahy MJ, Loewenstein RJ …

 

 

An Integrative Neurocircuit Perspective on Psychogenic Non …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363170/

Dissociative experiences are common in panic disorder, PTSD, somatoform disordersdissociative disorders, and borderline personality disorder among …

 

NIMH » Personality Disorders

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/personality-disorders.shtml

Borderline personality disorder is a serious mental disorder marked by a pattern of instability in moods, behavior, self-image, and functioning. These …

 

Fifty psychological and psychiatric terms to avoid: a list …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522609/

(17) Multiple personality disorder. Although the term “multiple personality disorder” was expunged from the American Psychiatric Association’s (1994) …

 

Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4049464/

Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors …

 

Treatment progress in 20 patients with multiple …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3783138

Treatment progress in 20 patients with multiple personality disorder. Coons PM. Attempts to follow the treatment progress of patients with multiple pe …

 

Treatment of multiple personality disorder. A study of 33 …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6718271

Treatment of multiple personality disorder. A study of 33 cases. Kluft RP. This article describes treatment results in 33 patients with multiple perso …

 

Birth Order and Psychopathology

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893959/

Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. … gender identity disorder, and somatization dis …

 

Depersonalisation/derealisation symptoms in vestibular disease

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2077438/

The instrument was designed to assess this phenomenology in clinically anxiety states, rather than in the context of dissociative disorders, with the …

 

 

 

 

Dissociation in hypnosis and multiple personality disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1894389

The second part of the paper employs a neodissociative view of hypnosis to help understand the current epidemic of multiple personality disorder …

 

The role of identity in the DSM-5 classification of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848950/

Recently Hopwood et al. demonstrated that severity of personality disorders, defined in terms of the number of fulfilled diagnostic criteria of all …

 

Treatment of dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9766789

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1998 Oct;155(10):1462-3. Treatment of dissociative identity disorder. Merskey H, Piper A Jr. Comment on Am J Psychiatry. 1997 …

 

Treatment of dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9766789

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1998 Oct;155(10):1462-3. Treatment of dissociative identity disorder. Merskey H, Piper A Jr. Comment on Am J Psychiatry. 1997 …

 

Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931180/

The symptoms of psychogenic seizures usually reflect a psychological conflict or a psychiatric disorder. However, psychogenic seizures are not …

 

Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures after Head Injury: A …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766503/

Dissociative disorder is defined as a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the …

 

Dissociative states with abnormal temporal lobe EEG …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7469851

Dissociative states with abnormal temporal lobe EEG. Multiple personality and the illusion of possession. Mesulam MM. Twelve patients with clinical …

 

6 Adapting Offender Treatment for Specific Populations …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64128/

Dissociative symptoms. Because there often is comorbidity between BPD and dissociative disorders, counselors must also be aware of the likelihood that …

 

A 5-Day Dialectical Behavior Therapy Partial Hospital …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2842988/

A score of 30 or higher indicates high likelihood of dissociative identity disorder. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) 29 is a …

Psychogenic Movement Disorders and Motor Conversion: A …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3073765/

Psychogenic Movement Disorders and Motor Conversion: A roadmap for collaboration between Neurology and Psychiatry. … Several authors have argued …

 

Multiple personality disorder and false memory syndrome.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7582681/

Multiple personality disorder and false memory syndrome. Haley C. Comment on Br J Psychiatry. 1995 Mar;166(3):281-3. … Child Abuse …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24291657

 

Long-term Memories: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3574792/

Weakening the intensity of traumatic memories during the first few weeks or months of the consolidation phase may be useful in impeding the …

 

Prescribing and borderline personality disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4917638/

Borderline personality disorder is a severe mental disorder that has its onset during adolescence and emerging adulthood. 1 It affects up to 3% of the …

 

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: so-called psychiatric …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4599147/

The ICD-10, instead, considers PNES within dissociative disorders, merging the dissociative disorders and conversion disorders, although the …

 

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7258407/

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state. Varma VK, Bouri M, Wig NN. This article reports probably the first case of …

 

8 Treatment Issues Specific to Jails – Substance Abuse …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64145/

Moreover, the study revealed a correlation between severe mental illness, antisocial personality disorder, and drug abuse (Swartz and Lurigio 1999) …

 

Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology: A case for …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3928064/

In this review, we exclude disorders (e.g., borderline personality and dissociative identity disorder) where research suggests the vast majority of …

 

 

 

The genetic epidemiology of personality disorders

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181941/

The genetic epidemiology of personality disorders … The introduction of personality disorders (PDs) as diagnostic categories on a separate axis …

 

Differential diagnosis – Autism – PubMed Health – National …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0042128/

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. … A differential diagnosis may also be a coexisting …

 

Effectiveness of dialectic behavioral therapy in routine …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4579507/

Effectiveness of dialectic behavioral therapy in routine outpatient care: the Berlin Borderline Study … Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been …

 

Dissociation and symptoms of culture-bound syndromes in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23406226

The Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the DissociativeDisorders Interview Schedule were …

 

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21391104

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11293369

 

Post-traumatic stress disorder – PubMed Health

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0015860/

The ICD–10 dissociative (conversion) disorders include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociativedisorders of movement and sensation, and …

 

Attention to emotional stimuli in borderline personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5050674/

Attention to emotional stimuli in borderline personality disorder – a review of the influence of dissociation, self-reference, and psychotherapeutic …

 

Psychiatrists’ attitudes toward dissociative disorders …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10905957

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jul;157(7):1179-80; author reply 1181-2. Psychiatrists’ attitudes toward dissociative disorders diagnoses. Coons PM, Chu J.

 

 

 

 

The psychobiology of resilience and vulnerability to …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181630/

The psychobiology of resilience and vulnerability to anxiety disorders: implications for prevention and treatment … events. 14 Studies of children …

Predictors of PTSD and screening for the disorder – Post …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56499/

Predictors of PTSD and screening for the disorder. 8.1. Introduction … previous emotional problems and antisocial personality disorder prior to …

 

Schizophrenia – PubMed Central (PMC)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1914490/

Schizophrenia is one of the most serious and frightening of all mental illnesses. No other disorder arouses as much anxiety in the general public, the …

 

The history of multiple personality in the United States …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7015885

The origins of the history of multiple personality in the United States may be found in the lectures and writings of Benjamin Rush. Although the case …

 

CLINICAL QUESTIONS – Borderline Personality Disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0015309/

Borderline Personality Disorder: Treatment and Management. Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2009. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 78.) …

 

 

Predictors of PTSD and screening for the disorder – Post …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56499/

Predictors of PTSD and screening for the disorder. 8.1. Introduction … previous emotional problems and antisocial personality disorder prior to …

 

NIH Fact Sheets – Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

report.nih.gov/NIHfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=58

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that some people develop after seeing or living …

 

Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5

pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5 In May 2013, the American Psychiatric Association issued the 5th edition of the Diagnostic …

 

Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3443400/

Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorders (SoD), remarkably …

 

“That pulled the rug out from under my feet!” – adverse …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477601/

A dose effect of accumulating stress on disorder severity has been suggested for severe mental disorders such as PTSD , major depressive disorder …

 

CLINICAL QUESTIONS – Borderline Personality Disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0015309/

Borderline Personality Disorder: Treatment and Management. Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2009. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 78.) …

 

Understanding dissociative identity disorder: in my mirror.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7860349

Understanding dissociative identity disorder: in my mirror. Coyle R, Thobaben M. PMID: 7860349 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Dissociative …

 

How to Use Your Clinical Judgment to Screen for and …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036551/

How to Use Your Clinical Judgment to Screen for and Diagnose Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures without Video Electroencephalogram. Shahid Ali, MD …

 

Re: Powell, Gee, and Ross–the effects of hypnosis on …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11143843

  1. Can J Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;45(9):848-9. Re: Powell, Gee, and Ross–the effects of hypnosis on dissociative identity disorder. Powell RA, Gee TL.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25180172

 

Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (Concept Id: C2733207)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/752901

Stabilizing group treatment for complex posttraumatic stress disorder related to child abuse based on psychoeducation and cognitive behavioural …

 

Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402130/

Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder …

 

The differential diagnosis of multiple personality. A …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6371728

This review offers guidelines for the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder and other dissociative disordersand presents diagnostic criteria for …

 

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19752643/

Dissociative Symptoms and Reported Trauma Among Patients …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878595/

 

Diagnosing the dissociative disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8080554

Diagnosing the dissociative disorders. Latz TT, Hughes DL, Kramer SI. Comment on Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Jul;150(7):1037-42. PMID: 8080554 [PubMed – …

 

Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5

pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5 In May 2013, the American Psychiatric Association issued the 5th edition of the Diagnostic …

 

First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4281393/

We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset …

 

The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4977075/

The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals’ mental health: a systematic review … (gender dysphoria or gender identit …

 

Psychophysiological Disorders and Pain Medication …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848470/

Psychophysiological disorders are physical disorders with psychological overlays. Because the proportion of psychological overlay is always variable …

 

The diagnosis of multiple personality syndromes: overt …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4028672

  1. Compr Ther. 1985 Jul;11(7):59-66. The diagnosis of multiple personality syndromes: overt, covert, and latent. O’Brien P. PMID: 4028672 [PubMed – …

 

The butler(s) DID it – dissociative identity disorder in …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670548

The butler(s) DID it – dissociative identity disorder in cinema. … maintained a prolific output of films with their own take on mental …

PubMed – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1583477

 

 

 

 

 

Therapy of multiple personality.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5549585

Therapy of multiple personality. Bowers MK, Brecher-Marer S, Newton BW, Piotrowski Z, Spyer TC, Taylor WS, Watkins JG. PMID: 5549585 [PubMed – indexed …

 

Dissociative responses in the immediate aftermath of the …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8827653

Dissociative responses in the immediate aftermath of the Oakland/Berkeley firestorm. Koopman C(1), Classen C, Spiegel D. Author information …

Conversion disorder in childhood—diagnosed too late …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC539597/

Conversion disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and … monosymptomatic manifestation and a good premorbid personality. 22 The outlook is less good …

 

Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care with special …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1837843/

Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care with special reference to personality disorder comorbidity. Manuel Gómez-Beneyto, MD, … multiplicity …

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11961688

 

Corrigendum: Self-Reported Sleep Disturbances in Patients …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225486

Moved Permanently. The document has moved here.

 

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Case Book, revised ed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC181110/

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Case Book, revised ed. … Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Case Book, revised ed. by John H. Griest, M.D., and James W …

 

Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Are Bad for Your Health

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC321212/

Undoubtedly, patients with persistent PNES have difficult-to-treat psychopathology, including personalitydisorders, chronic mood disorders, and disso …

 

Genetics of OCD

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824902/

Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorderGenetics, Psychiatry. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) … Frost RO, Steketee G, Williams LF, et al. Mood …

 

Regarding Dissociative Amnesia and Cluster C Personality …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2990570/

I was excited to read about the dissociative cases in the Leong, et al., article, “ Dissociative amnesia and DSM-IV-TR cluster C personality traits” …

Substance-Induced Disorders – Substance Abuse Treatment …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64178/

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Center for Substance Abuse TreatmentSubstance Abuse …

 

multiple personality disorder – Books – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books?term=multiple+personality+disorder&cmd=DetailsSearch

Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management and Prevention. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). … multiple personality …

Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027329/

Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology … with a high risk of …

 

Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2762959/

Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas …

 

The duality of the brain and the multiplicity of minds …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12094818

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), now known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), has been of great interest to the public for over a century …

 

An evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy as a …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15209224

BACKGROUND: Although suggestions have been made concerning the management of patients with dissociativeseizures, no studies have previously evaluated …

 

Multiple personality disorder in India.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2386273

Multiple personality disorder in India. Downs J, Dahmer SK, Battle AO. Comment on Am J Psychiatry. 1989 Dec;146(12):1607-10. PMID: 2386273 …

 

Re: the persistence of folly: a critical examination of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16408530

  1. Can J Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;50(12):813; author reply 814. Re: the persistence of folly: a critical examination of dissociative identity disorder.

PubMed – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16455142

9604556 – National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9604556

 

 

Association of trauma-related disorders and dissociation …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20414799

This study examines the relationships in an ethnically diverse Latino psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 230) among interpersonal trauma …

 

The Bianchi (L. A. Hillside Strangler) case: sociopath or …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6469422

The Bianchi (L. A. Hillside Strangler) case: sociopath or multiple personality? Watkins JG. PMID: 6469422 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Publication …

 

Treatment for multiple personality disorder: at what cost?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7677209

Treatment for multiple personality disorder: at what cost? Ross CA. … Publication Types: Letter; MeSH Terms. Cost-Benefit Analysis; Dissociative Dis …

 

Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4258110/

Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in dissociative identity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163:630–636. [PMC free article] 28. Vythilingam M, Heim C …

 

A Genome-Wide Association Study of Clinical Symptoms of …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3984628/

Recent work suggests that a subset of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit marked dissociative symptoms, as defined by …

 

Re: The effects of hypnosis on dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10779893

Re: The effects of hypnosis on dissociative identity disorder. Ross CA. Comment in Can J Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;45(9):848-9. Comment on Can J …

 

Body plasticity in borderline personality disorder: A link …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27423343

INTRODUCTION: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report an unstable sense of self, which is further enhanced in dissociative …

 

The Evolving Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901120/

The Evolving Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): DSM-5 Criteria Changes and Legal Implications … borderline personality disorder, and …

 

Auditory hallucinations and dissociative identity disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7653707

  1. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Sep;152(9):1403-4. Auditory hallucinations and dissociative identity disorder. Peterson G. Comment on Am J Psychiatry. 1994 …

Investigating multiple personality disorder.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7894867

Dissociative Disorders/classification; Dissociative Disorders/diagnosis; Dissociative Disorders/psychology; Humans; Multiple Personality Disorder …

 

Are multiple personalities borderline? An analysis of 33 …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6718269

Are multiple personalities borderline? An analysis of 33 cases. … The authors detail their investigation into the positive relationship between …

 

The Neurology of Dissociative Identity disorder

 

The Neuropsychiatry of Dissociative Identity Disorder: Why Split Personality Patients Switch Personalities Intermittently?

 

Rutkofsky, I. H., Khan, A. S., Sahito, S., Aqeel, N., & Tohid, H. (2017). The Neuropsychiatry of Dissociative Identity Disorder: Why Split Personality Patients Switch Personalities Intermittently. J Cell Sci Ther8(267), 2.

 

DOI: 10.4172/2157-7013. 1000267

 

Abstract

 

Little has been known about the possible brain changes in the patients suffering from the psychiatric illness called Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). This review suggests that the patients of DID have structural changes in the limbic system – hippocampus and amygdala -and the cortex. Blood flow is also altered in the orbito-frontal cortex.

 

Another interesting finding of this review is that the glutamate release is found to be the cause of the dissociative symptoms, if this is true, then probably the glutamate blockers is the future for managing such patients. Furthermore, this review also highlights that in some DID patients the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex are activated. The limbic system especially the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex are associated with the

short term and working memory, while the hippocampus is associated with long-term memory.

 

All these regions are somehow affected in the DID patient’s brain. Thus, this explains the symptoms of the multiple personality changes and forgetting about the previous personality. Why the nature of these symptoms is temporary despite evidence for permanent structural brain changes is perhaps a question that is yet to be answered. Future studies will broaden our knowledge about the ‘cyclical nature’ and complete neuropsychiatry of this unique medical illness.

 

Trauma, PTSD and the Developing Brain

Herringa, R. J. (2017). Trauma, PTSD, and the developing brain. Current psychiatry reports19(10), 69.

DOI: 10.1007/s11920-017-0825-3

 

Abstract

Purpose of review

PTSD in youth is common and debilitating. In contrast to adult PTSD, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of pediatric PTSD, nor how neurodevelopment may be altered. This review summarizes recent neuroimaging studies in pediatric PTSD and discusses implications for future study.

Recent findings

Pediatric PTSD is characterized by abnormal structure and function in neural circuitry supporting threat processing and emotion regulation. Furthermore, cross-sectional studies suggest that youth with PTSD have abnormal frontolimbic development compared to typically developing youth. Examples include declining hippocampal volume, increasing amygdala reactivity, and declining amygdala-prefrontal coupling with age.

Summary

Pediatric PTSD is characterized by both overt and developmental abnormalities in frontolimbic circuitry. Notably, abnormal frontolimbic development may contribute to increasing threat reactivity and weaker emotion regulation as youth age. Longitudinal studies of pediatric PTSD are needed to characterize individual outcomes and determine whether current treatments are capable of restoring healthy neurodevelopment.

 

Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder

Sar, V., Unal, S. N., & Ozturk, E. (2007). Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging156(3), 217-223.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2006.12.017

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder.

Twenty-one drug-free patients with dissociative identity disorder and nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. In addition to a clinical evaluation, dissociative psychopathology was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale.

A semi-structured interview for borderline personality disorder, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were also administered to all patients. Normal controls had to be without a history of childhood trauma and without any depressive or dissociative disorder.

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer.

Compared with findings in the control group, the rCBF ratio was decreased among patients with dissociative identity disorder in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. It was increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally.

There was no significant correlation between rCBF ratios of the regions of interest and any of the psychopathology scale scores. An explanation for the neurophysiology of dissociative psychopathology has to invoke a comprehensive model of interaction between anterior and posterior brain regions.

 

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Personality Switches in Women with Dissociative Identity Disorder

Tsai, G. E., Condie, D., Wu, M. T., & Chang, I. W. (1999). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of personality switches in a woman with dissociative identity disorder. Harvard Review of Psychiatry7(2), 119-122.

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a controversial condition characterized by fluctuating constellations of affective, memory, and behavioral symptoms that are associated with a changing sense of personal identity.1 Clinically, DID is of-ten associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Psycho-dynamically, it is considered rooted in childhood traumatic experiences and is usually an extreme form of defense against overwhelming abuse.

Researchers have recently reported hippocampal volume to be decreased in persons with PTSD secondary to child-hood abuse.2 The hippocampus is sensitive to stress and ov-erarousal,2 which individuals with DID—like those with PTSD—often encounter in early life. We performed a volumetric study of the hippocampus in a patient with comorbid DID and PTSD for comparison with the literature on PTSD.

 

Very little is known about the brain substrate involved in DID, particularly the mechanism of personality switch. Neuro-physiological study of DID is limited due to the dynamic nature of the disorder. Although measurable neurophysiological differences among personalities in DID have been re-ported, the results have been inconsistent and often mixed.3

 

Unlike other brain mapping techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has high temporal and spatial resolution,4 so it is an ideal tool to study neuropsychiatric disorders with dynamic symptoms, such as DID. And with fMRI—in contrast to procedures such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography— a subject can be studied repeatedly without the concern of ionizing radiation. To investigate the neuronal substrate involved in the personality switches of DID, we conducted an fMRI study on a woman with DID while she was switching personalities.

 

Amygdala and hippocampal volumes and cognition in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders

 

 

Weniger, G., Lange, C., Sachsse, U., & Irle, E. (2008). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes and cognition in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica118(4), 281-290

DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01246

Objective:

Trauma-exposed individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display reduced amygdala and hippocampal size and impaired cognition. However, studies on trauma-exposed individuals with dissociative amnesia (DA) or dissociative identity disorder (DID) are lacking.

 

Method:

Twenty-three young women who had experienced severe childhood sexual ⁄ physical abuse, diagnosed with DA ⁄ DID or PTSD, and 25 healthy control subjects were subjected to 3D structural magnetic resonance imaging of amygdala and hippocampus and a clinical and neuropsychological investigation.

 

Results:

Compared with controls, trauma-exposed subjects with PTSD (n = 10) displayed significantly reduced amygdala and hippocampal size and significantly impaired cognition. By contrast, trauma-exposed subjects with DA or DID (n = 13) displayed normal amygdala and hippocampal size and normal cognition.

 

Conclusion:

We report for the first-time volumetric results in subjects with DA ⁄ DID without PTSD as comorbid diagnosis. Our results indicate preserved amygdala and hippocampal size and preserved cognition in subjects with these disorders.

 

 

Functional brain imaging in 14 patients with dissociative amnesia reveals right inferolateral prefrontal hypometabolism

 

Brand, M., Eggers, C., Reinhold, N., Fujiwara, E., Kessler, J., Heiss, W. D., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2009). Functional brain imaging in 14 patients with dissociative amnesia reveals right inferolateral prefrontal hypometabolism. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging174(1), 32-39.

doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.03.008

A b s t r a c t

Dissociative amnesia is a condition usually characterized by severely impaired retrograde memory functioning in the absence of structural brain damage.

Recent case studies nevertheless found functional brain changes in patients suffering from autobiographical–episodic memory loss in the cause of dissociative amnesia. Functional changes were demonstrated in both resting state and memory retrieval conditions.

In addition, some but not all cases also showed other neuropsychological impairments beyond retrograde memory deficits.

However, there is no group study available that examined potential functional brain abnormalities and accompanying neuropsychological deteriorations in larger samples of patients with dissociative retrograde amnesia.

We report functional imaging and neuropsychological data acquired in 14 patients with dissociative amnesia following stressful or traumatic events. All patients suffered from autobiographical memory loss. In addition, approximately half of the patients had deficits in anterograde memory and executive functioning. Accompanying functional brain changes were measured by [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).

Regional glucose utilization of the patients was compared with that of 19 healthy subjects, matched for age and gender.

We found significantly decreased glucose utilization in the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex in the patients. Hypometabolism in this brain region, known to be involved in retrieval of autobiographical memories and self-referential processing, may be a functional brain correlate of dissociative amnesia.

HMPAO SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in dissociative identity disorder

 

Sar, V., Unal, S. N., Kiziltan, E., Kundakci, T., & Ozturk, E. (2001). HMPAO SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation2(2), 5-25.

DOI: 10.1300/J229v02n02_02

ABSTRACT.

The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder. Fifteen patients with dissociative identity disorder and eight healthy volunteers participated in the study. The clinical diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. The Structured Clinical Inter- view for DSM-III-R was also administered to all patients to screen comorbid psychiatric conditions.

Regional cerebral blood flow was studied using a SPECT system with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer. The rCBF ratio was decreased in orbitofrontal region bilaterally and increased in left (dominant hemi-sphere) lateral temporal region among patients with dissociative identity disorder when compared to the control group. The structured interview diagnoses of concurrent or life time major depression, PTSD, psychotic dis order, or on-going drug treatment were not significantly related to perfusion in these regions. There was no statistically meaningful difference in rCBF ratios between host and alter personality states.

Our findings suggest that orbitofrontal and left (dominant hemi sphere) lateral temporal regions are affected in dissociative identity disorder.

A replication of this study on a larger group of drug-free dissociative patients and various psychiatric control groups would lead to more definitive findings.

 

One brain, two selves

Reinders, A. A. T. S., Nijenhuis, E. R., Paans, A. M., Korf, J., Willemsen, A. T. M., & Den Boer, J. A. (2003). One brain, two selves. Neuroimage20(4), 2119-2125.

https://www.rug.nl/research/portal/files/2946509/c5.pdf

NOTE: Your computer may say the file is dangerous, but it is not. It’s okay to click on the link to the PDF above.

Abstract

Having a sense of self is an explicit and high level-functional specialization of the human brain. The anatomical localization of self-awareness and the brain mechanisms involved in consciousness were investigated by functional neuroimaging different emotional mental states of core consciousness in patients with multiple personality disorder, i.e. dissociative identity disorder (DID).

We demonstrate specific changes in localized brain activity consistent with their ability to generate at least two distinct mental states of self-awareness, each with its own access to autobiographical trauma-related memory.

Our findings reveal the existence of different regional cerebral blood flow patterns for different senses of self. We present evidence for the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior associative cortices to have an integral role in conscious experience.

Toward an Etiology of Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

(you must pay to access)

Forrest, K. A. (2001). Toward an etiology of dissociative identity disorder: A neurodevelopmental approach. Consciousness and Cognition10(3), 259-293.

https://doi.org/10.1006/ccog.2001.0493

Abstract

This article elaborates on Putnam’s “discrete behavioral states” model of dissociative identity disorder (Putnam, 1997) by proposing the involvement of the orbitalfrontal cortex in the development of DID and suggesting a potential neurodevelopmental mechanism responsible for the development of multiple representations of self.

The proposed “orbitalfrontal” model integrates and elaborates on theory and research from four domains: the neurobiology of the orbitalfrontal cortex and its protective inhibitory role in the temporal organization of behavior, the development of emotion regulation, the development of the self, and experience-dependent reorganizing neocortical processes.

The hypothesis being proposed is that the experience-dependent maturation of the orbitalfrontal cortex in early abusive environments, characterized by discontinuity in dyadic socio-affective interactions between the infant and the caregiver, may be responsible for a pattern of lateral inhibition between conflicting subsets of self-representations which are normally integrated into a unified self. The basic idea is that the discontinuity in the early caretaking environment is manifested in the discontinuity in the organization of the developing child’s self.

Volume of discrete brain structures in complex dissociative disorders: preliminary findings

Ehling, T., Nijenhuis, E. R. S., & Krikke, A. P. (2007). Volume of discrete brain structures in complex dissociative disorders: preliminary findings. Progress in brain research167, 307-310.

Abstract:

Based on findings in traumatized animals and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and on traumatogenic models of complex dissociative disorders, it was hypothesized that:

(1) patients with complex dissociative disorders have smaller volumes of hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala than normal controls,

(2) these volumes are associated with severity of psychoform and somatoform dissociative symptoms, and

(3) patients who recovered from dissociative identity disorder (DID) have more hippocampal volume that patients with florid DID.

The preliminary findings of the study are supportive of these hypotheses.

Psychotherapy for dissociative disorders may affect hippocampal volume, but longitudinal studies are required to document this potential causal relationship.

 

Dissociative part-dependent biopsychosocial reactions to backward masked angry and neutral faces: An fMRI study of dissociative identity disorder

Schlumpf, Y. R., Nijenhuis, E. R., Chalavi, S., Weder, E. V., Zimmermann, E., Luechinger, R., … & Jäncke, L. (2013). Dissociative part-dependent biopsychosocial reactions to backward masked angry and neutral faces: An fMRI study of dissociative identity disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical3, 54-64.

Abstract

Objective: The Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP) proposes that dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients are fixed in traumatic memories as “Emotional Parts” (EP), but mentally avoid these as “Apparently Normal Parts” of the personality (ANP). We tested the hypotheses that ANP and EP have different biopsychosocial reactions to subliminally presented angry and neutral faces, and that actors instructed and motivated to simulate ANP and EP react differently.

Methods: Women with DID and matched healthy female actors (CON) were as ANP and EP (DIDanp, DIDep, CONanp, CONep) consecutively exposed to masked neutral and angry faces. Their brain activation was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The black-and-white dotted masks preceding and following the faces each had a centered colored dot, but in a different color. Participants were instructed to immediately press a button after a perceived color change. State anxiety was assessed after each run using the STAI-S. Final statistical analyses were conducted on 11 DID patients and 15 controls for differences in neural activity, and 13 DID patients and 15 controls for differences in behavior and psychometric measures.

Results: Differences between ANP and EP in DID patients and between DID and CON in the two dissociative parts of the personality were generally larger for neutral than for angry faces. The longest reaction times (RTs) existed for DIDep when exposed to neutral faces. Compared to DIDanp, DIDep was associated with more activation of the parahippocampal gyrus. Following neutral faces and compared to CONep, DIDep had more activation in the brainstem, face-sensitive regions, and motor-related areas. DIDanp showed a decreased activity all over the brain in the neutral and angry face condition. There were neither significant within differences nor significant between group differences in state anxiety. CON was not able to simulate genuine ANP and EP bio-psychosocially.

Conclusions: DID patients have dissociative part-dependent biopsychosocial reactions to masked neutral and angry faces. As EP, they are overactivated, and as ANP under-activated. The findings support TSDP. Major clinical implications are discussed.

Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098795

Schlumpf, Y. R., Reinders, A. A., Nijenhuis, E. R., Luechinger, R., van Osch, M. J., & Jäncke, L. (2014). Dissociative part-dependent resting-state activity in dissociative identity disorder: a controlled FMRI perfusion study. PLoS One9(6), e98795.

Abstract

Background

In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the “Emotional Part” (EP) and the “Apparently Normal Part” (ANP), have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors.

Methods

Arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI was used to test the hypotheses that ANP and EP in DID have different perfusion patterns in response to rest instructions, and that perfusion is different in actors who were instructed to simulate ANP and EP. In a follow-up study, regional cerebral blood flow of DID patients was compared with the activation pattern of healthy non-simulating controls.

Results

Compared to EP, ANP showed elevated perfusion in bilateral thalamus. Compared to ANP, EP had increased perfusion in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and motor-related areas. Perfusion patterns for simulated ANP and EP were different. Fitting their reported role-play strategies, the actors activated brain structures involved in visual mental imagery and empathizing feelings. The follow-up study demonstrated elevated perfusion in the left temporal lobe in DID patients, whereas non-simulating healthy controls had increased activity in areas which mediate the mental construction of past and future episodic events.

Conclusion

DID involves dissociative part-dependent resting-state differences. Compared to ANP, EP activated brain structures involved in self-referencing and sensorimotor actions more. Actors had different perfusion patterns compared to genuine ANP and EP. Comparisons of neural activity for individuals with DID and non-DID simulating controls suggest that the resting-state features of ANP and EP in DID are not due to imagination. The findings are consistent with TSDP and inconsistent with the idea that DID is caused by suggestion, fantasy proneness, and role-playing.

Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder: A PET study and neurobiological model

 

Reinders, A. A., Willemsen, A. T., den Boer, J. A., Vos, H. P., Veltman, D. J., & Loewenstein, R. J. (2014). Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder: A PET study and neurobiological model. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging223(3), 236-243.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.05.005

Abstract

Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes.

Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the differing brain activation patterns in PTSD. While brain activation was monitored using positron emission tomography, DID individuals (n¼11) and matched DID-simulating healthy controls (n¼16) underwent an autobiographic script-driven imagery paradigm in a hypo-aroused and a hyper-aroused identity state.

Results were consistent with those previously found in the two PTSD subtypes for the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala and insula, respectively.

Furthermore, the dissociative identity state uniquely activated the posterior association areas and the para-hippocampal gyri, whereas the hyper-aroused identity state uniquely activated the caudate nucleus.

Therefore, we proposed an extended PTSD-based neurobiological model for emotion modulation in DID: the hypo-aroused identity state activates the prefrontal cortex, cingulate, posterior association areas and para-hippocampal gyri, thereby overmodulating emotion regulation; the hyper-aroused identity state activates the amygdala and insula as well as the dorsal striatum, thereby under modulating emotion regulation.

This confirms the notion that DID is related to PTSD as hypo-aroused and hyper-arousal states in DID and PTSD are similar.

 

Neural correlates of enhanced working-memory performance in dissociative disorder: a functional MRI study

Elzinga, B. M., Ardon, A. M., Heijnis, M. K., De Ruiter, M. B., Van Dyck, R., & Veltman, D. J. (2007). Neural correlates of enhanced working-memory performance in dissociative disorder: a functional MRI study. Psychological medicine37(2), 235-245.

doi:10.1017/S0033291706008932

ABSTRACT

Background. Memory functioning has been highlighted as a central issue in pathological dissociation. In non-pathological dissociation, evidence for enhanced working memory has been found, together with greater task-load related activity. So far, no imaging studies have investigated working memory in dissociative patients.

 

Method. To assess working memory in dissociative patient’s functional magnetic resonance imaging was used during performance of a parametric, verbal working-memory task in patients with a dissociative disorder (n=16) and healthy controls (n=16).

Results. Imaging data showed that both groups activated brain regions typically involved in working memory, i.e. anterior, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), and parietal cortex. Dissociative patients showed more activation in these areas, particularly in the left anterior PFC, dorsolateral PFC and parietal cortex. In line with these findings, patients made fewer errors with increasing task load compared to controls, despite the fact they felt more anxious and less concentrated during task performance.

Conclusions. These results extend findings in non-pathological high dissociative individuals, suggesting that trait dissociation is associated with enhanced working-memory capacities. This may distinguish dissociative patients from patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, who are generally characterized by impaired working memory.

 

Aiding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder: pattern recognition study of brain biomarkers

 

Reinders, A. A., Marquand, A. F., Schlumpf, Y. R., Chalavi, S., Vissia, E. M., Nijenhuis, E. R., … & Veltman, D. J. (2018). Aiding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder: pattern recognition study of brain biomarkers. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1-9.

https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2018.255

Abstract

Background

 

A diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is controversial and prone to under- and misdiagnosis. From the moment of seeking treatment for symptoms to the time of an accurate diagnosis of DID individuals received an average of four prior other diagnoses and spent 7 years, with reports of up to 12 years, in mental health services.

 

Aim

 

To investigate whether data-driven pattern recognition methodologies applied to structural brain images can provide biomarkers to aid DID diagnosis.

 

Method

 

Structural brain images of 75 participants were included: 32 female individuals with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Individuals with DID were recruited from psychiatry and psychotherapy out-patient clinics. Probabilistic pattern classifiers were trained to discriminate cohorts based on measures of brain morphology.

 

Results

 

The pattern classifiers were able to accurately discriminate between individuals with DID and healthy controls with high sensitivity (72%) and specificity (74%) on the basis of brain structure. These findings provide evidence for a biological basis for distinguishing between DID-affected and healthy individuals.

 

Conclusions

 

We propose a pattern of neuroimaging biomarkers that could be used to inform the identification of individuals with DID from healthy controls at the individual level. This is important and clinically relevant because the DID diagnosis is controversial and individuals with DID are often misdiagnosed. Ultimately, the application of pattern recognition methodologies could prevent unnecessary suffering of individuals with DID because of an earlier accurate diagnosis, which will facilitate faster and targeted interventions.

 

Fact or Factitious? A Psychobiological Study of Authentic and Simulated Dissociative Identity States

 

Reinders, A. S., Willemsen, A. T., Vos, H. P., den Boer, J. A., & Nijenhuis, E. R. (2012). Fact or factitious? A psychobiological study of authentic and simulated dissociative identity states. PLoS One7(6), e39279.

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039279

Abstract

Background:

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a disputed psychiatric disorder. Research findings and clinical observations suggest that DID involves an authentic mental disorder related to factors such as traumatization and disrupted attachment. A competing view indicates that DID is due to fantasy proneness, suggestibility, suggestion, and role-playing. Here we examine whether dissociative identity state-dependent psychobiological features in DID can be induced in high or low fantasy prone individuals by instructed and motivated role-playing, and suggestion.

Methodology/Principal Findings:

DID patients, high fantasy prone and low fantasy prone controls were studied in two different types of identity states (neutral and trauma-related) in an autobiographical memory script-driven (neutral or trauma-related) imagery paradigm. The controls were instructed to enact the two DID identity states. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study: 11 patients with DID, 10 high fantasy prone DID simulating controls, and 8 low fantasy prone DID simulating controls. Autonomic and subjective reactions were obtained. Differences in psychophysiological and neural activation patterns were found between the DID patients and both high and low fantasy prone controls. That is, the identity states in DID were not convincingly enacted by DID simulating controls. Thus, important differences regarding regional cerebral bloodflow and psychophysiological responses for different types of identity states in patients with DID were upheld after controlling for DID simulation.

Conclusions/Significance:

The findings are at odds with the idea that differences among different types of dissociative identity states in DID can be explained by high fantasy proneness, motivated role-enactment, and suggestion. They indicate that DID does not have a sociocultural (e.g., iatrogenic) origin.

The Emerging Psychobiology of Trauma‐Related Dissociation and Dissociative Disorders

 

(you must pay for access to this book chapter)

 

Nijenhuis, E. R., van der Hart, O., & Steele, K. (2002). The emerging psychobiology of trauma‐related dissociation and dissociative disorders. Biological psychiatry, 1079-1098.

 

https://doi.org/10.1002/0470854871.chxxi

 

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction
  • The Concept of Dissociation
  • Psychoform and Somatoform, and Negative and Positive, Dissociative Symptoms
  • Retraction of the Field of Consciousness and Low Levels of Conscious Awareness
  • PTSD, Dissociation, and Stress Responses
  • Possible Involvement of Neurochemicals in Dissociation
  • Enhancement and Impairment of the Memory Function
  • Substance‐induced Dissociative‐like Symptoms in Healthy Individuals
  • Substance‐induced Dissociative Symptoms and States in PTSD Patients
  • Norepinephrine/Locus Coeruleus
  • Endorphins
  • HPA‐axis
  • Interactions Among Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Corticotropin‐releasing Factor (CRF), Cortisol, and Norepinephrine
  • Urinary Catecholamines and CSF Norepinephrine
  • Key Brain Structures in Integrative Functions
  • Amygdala
  • Hippocampus
  • Medial Prefrontal Cortex
  • Thalamus
  • Cingulate Gyrus
  • Motor Cortex
  • Somatosensory Association Areas:
  • Insula:
  • Neurobiological Models of Dissociative Disorders
  • DID and Epilepsy
  • Dissociative Disorders and Cerebral Hemispheric Laterality
  • Dissociative Personalities as Discrete Behavioural States
  • Dissociative Personalities in DID
  • The Theory of Structural Dissociation
  • Emotional Operating Systems
  • The EP is Dedicated to Survival Under Threat
  • The ANP Involves Systems That Manage Daily Life and Promote Survival of the Species
  • Similarities Between the Human and Animal Defensive System
  • Psychobiological Interference with Integration of ANP and EP
  • Peritraumatic Integrative Failure
  • Post‐traumatic Integrative Failure
  • Psychobiological Research of ANP and EP
  • Differences Between ANP and EP on Subliminal Threat Exposure
  • Symptom Provocation by Exposure to Neutral and Trauma Memory Scripts in DID
  • Positive Feedforward Excitation (EP) and Negative Feedforward Inhibition (ANP)?
  • EP‐dependent Responsivity to Threat
  • ANP‐dependent Responsivity to Threat
  • Psychobiological Differences Among Dissociative Parts of the Personality in PTSD
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

 

 

From the Neuropsychiatric to the Analytic: Three Perspectives on Dissociative Identity Disorder

Biswas, J., Chu, J. A., Perez, D. L., & Gutheil, T. G. (2013). From the neuropsychiatric to the analytic: three perspectives on dissociative identity disorder. Harvard review of psychiatry21(1), 41-51.

DOI: 10.1097/HRP.0b013e31827fd7c8

This paper uses case studies to show the neuropsychiatric and analytic perspectives of DID.

 

Computers can ‘spot the difference’ between healthy brains and the brains of people with DID

NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre and published in the British Journal of Psychiatry.

King’s College London.

george.king@kcl.ac.uk

Machine-learning and neuroimaging techniques have been used to accurately distinguish between individuals with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and healthy individuals, on the basis of their brain structure, in new research part funded by the NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre and published in the British Journal of Psychiatry.

Commenting on the research, Dr Reinders said: “DID diagnosis is controversial and individuals with DID are often misdiagnosed. From the moment of seeking treatment for symptoms, to the time of an accurate diagnosis of DID, individuals receive an average of four misdiagnoses and spend seven years in mental health services.

 

“The findings of our present study are important because they provide the best evidence of a biological basis for distinguishing between individuals with DID and healthy individuals. Ultimately, the application of pattern recognition techniques could prevent unnecessary answering through earlier and more accurate diagnosis, facilitating faster and more targeted therapeutic interventions.”

 

https://neurosciencenews.com/ai-did-brain-10312/

 

 

The Epigenetic (genetic) Changes from Childhood Trauma

Child Abuse and Epigenetic Mechanisms of Disease Risk

Yang, B. Z., Zhang, H., Ge, W., Weder, N., Douglas-Palumberi, H., Perepletchikova, F., … & Kaufman, J. (2013). Child abuse and epigenetic mechanisms of disease risk. American journal of preventive medicine44(2), 101-107.

https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(12)00797-0/fulltext

 

Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD

Yehuda, R., Flory, J. D., Pratchett, L. C., Buxbaum, J., Ising, M., & Holsboer, F. (2010). Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD. Psychopharmacology212(3), 405-417.

 

Abstract: Rationale Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects of the biology of PTSD may reflect biological correlates of risk.

Objectives: This paper will examine how empirical findings regarding the biological basis of ELS can inform our understanding of the neuroendocrinology of PTSD. This paper will also propose a hypothetical model to guide future research that integrates genetic, epigenetic, neuroendocrine, and psychological observations to understand the contribution of ELS neurobiology to PTSD.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-010-1969-6

Epigenetic mechanisms and the transgenerational effects of maternal care

Frances A. Champagne

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.03.003

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091302208000095

Abstract

The transmission of traits across generations has typically been attributed to the inheritance by offspring of genomic information from parental generations. However, recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are capable of mediating this type of transmission. In the case of maternal care, there is evidence for the behavioral transmission of postpartum behavior from mothers to female offspring.

 

The neuroendocrine and molecular mediators of this transmission have been explored in rats and implicate estrogen–oxytocin interactions and the differential methylation of hypothalamic estrogen receptors. These maternal effects can influence multiple aspects of neurobiology and behavior of offspring and this particular mode of inheritance is dynamic in response to environmental variation.

 

In this review, evidence for the generational transmission of maternal care and the mechanisms underlying this transmission will be discussed as will the implications of this inheritance system for offspring development and for the transmission of environmental information from parents to offspring.

 

Child Abuse, Depression, and Methylation in Genes Involved with Stress, Neural Plasticity, and Brain Circuitry

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.025

Weder, N., Zhang, H., Jensen, K., Yang, B. Z., Simen, A., Jackowski, A., … & O’Loughlin, K. (2014). Child abuse, depression, and methylation in genes involved with stress, neural plasticity, and brain circuitry. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry53(4), 417-424.

Objectives

To determine whether epigenetic markers predict dimensional ratings of depression in maltreated children.

 

Method

A genome-wide methylation study was completed using the Illumina 450K BeadChip array in 94 maltreated and 96 healthy non-traumatized children with saliva-derived DNA. The 450K Bead Chip does not include any methylation sites in the exact location as sites in candidate genes previously examined in the literature, so a test for replication of prior research findings was not feasible.

 

Results

Methylation in 3 genes emerged as genome-wide–significant predictors of depression: DNA-Binding Protein Inhibitor ID–3 (ID3); Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) 1 (GRIN1); and Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) (p < 5.0 × 10−7, all analyses). These genes are all biologically relevant with ID3 involved in the stress response, GRIN1 involved in neural plasticity, and TPPP involved in neural circuitry development. Methylation in CpG sites in candidate genes were not predictors of depression at significance levels corrected for whole genome testing, but maltreated and control children did have significantly different β values after Bonferroni correction at multiple methylation sites in these candidate genes (e.g., BDNF, NR3C1, FKBP5).

Conclusions

This study suggests that epigenetic changes in ID3, GRIN1, and TPPP genes, in combination with experiences of maltreatment, may confer risk for depression in children. The study adds to a growing body of literature supporting a role for epigenetic mechanisms in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Although epigenetic changes are frequently long lasting, they are not necessarily permanent. Consequently, interventions to reverse the negative biological and behavioral sequelae associated with child maltreatment are briefly discussed.

 

Oxytocin Receptor Genetic and Epigenetic Variations: Association with Child Abuse and Adult Psychiatric Symptoms

 

https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12493

Smearman, E. L., Almli, L. M., Conneely, K. N., Brody, G. H., Sales, J. M., Bradley, B., … & Smith, A. K. (2016). Oxytocin receptor genetic and epigenetic variations: association with child abuse and adult psychiatric symptoms. Child development87(1), 122-134.

Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date has evaluated abuse and methylation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR).

However, studies support a role for OXTR in the link between abuse and adverse adult outcomes, showing that abuse can confer greater risk for psychiatric symptoms in those with specific OXTR genotypes. This study therefore sought to (a) assess the role of epigenetics in the link between abuse and psychopathology and (b) begin to integrate the genetic and epigenetic literature by exploring associations between OXTR genotypes and DNA CpG methylation. Data on 18 OXTR CpG sites, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms, childhood abuse, and adult depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed in 393 African American adults (age = 41 ± 12.8 years).

Overall, 68% of genotypes were associated with methylation of nearby CpG sites, with a subset surviving multiple test correction. Child abuse associated with higher methylation of two CpG sites yet did not survive correction or serve as a mediator of psychopathology.

However, abuse interacted with CpG methylation to predict psychopathology. These findings suggest a role for OXTR in understanding the influence of early environments on adult psychiatric symptoms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epigenetic Mechanisms for the Early Environmental Regulation of Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Expression in Rodents and Humans

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/npp2012149

 

Zhang, T. Y., Labonté, B., Wen, X. L., Turecki, G., & Meaney, M. J. (2013). Epigenetic mechanisms for the early environmental regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression in rodents and humans. Neuropsychopharmacology38(1), 111.

 

Parental care influences development across mammals. In humans such influences include effects on phenotypes, such as stress reactivity, which determine individual differences in the vulnerability for affective disorders.

 

Thus, the adult offspring of rat mothers that show an increased frequency of pup licking/grooming (ie, high LG mothers) show increased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and more modest hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal responses to stress compared with the offspring of low LG mothers.

 

In humans, childhood maltreatment associates decreased hippocampal GR expression and increased stress responses in adulthood. We review the evidence suggesting that such effects are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation across GR promoter regions.

 

We also present new findings revealing associated histone post-translational modifications of a critical GR promoter in rat hippocampus.

 

Taken together these existing evidences are consistent with the idea that parental influences establish stable phenotypic variation in the offspring through effects on intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the epigenetic state and function of specific regions of the genome.

 

Behavioral epigenetics

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06037.x

 

Lester, B. M., Tronick, E., Nestler, E., Abel, T., Kosofsky, B., Kuzawa, C. W., … & Reul, J. M. (2011). Behavioral epigenetics. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1226(1), 14-33.

Abstract

Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, “Behavioral Epigenetics” was held on October 29–30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, developmental disorders, and psychopathology.

This report provides an overview of the research presented by leading scientists and lively discussion about the future of investigation at the behavioral epigenetic level.

How the epigenome contributes to the development of psychiatric disorders

https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.20424

Bredy, T. W., Sun, Y. E., & Kobor, M. S. (2010). How the epigenome contributes to the development of psychiatric disorders. Developmental psychobiology52(4), 331-342.

Abstract

Epigenetics commonly refers to the developmental process by which cellular traits are established and inherited without a change in DNA sequence.

These mechanisms of cellular memory also orchestrate gene expression in the adult brain and recent evidence suggests that the “epigenome” represents a critical interface between environmental signals, activation, repression and maintenance of genomic responses, and persistent behavior.

We here review the current state of knowledge regarding the contribution of the epigenome toward the development of psychiatric disorders.

Childhood maltreatment is associated with distinct genomic and epigenetic profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder

 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1217750110

Mehta, D., Klengel, T., Conneely, K. N., Smith, A. K., Altmann, A., Pace, T. W., … & Bradley, B. (2013). Childhood maltreatment is associated with distinct genomic and epigenetic profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences110(20), 8302-8307.

Abstract

Childhood maltreatment is likely to influence fundamental biological processes and engrave long-lasting epigenetic marks, leading to adverse health outcomes in adulthood. We aimed to elucidate the impact of different early environment on disease-related genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in peripheral blood cells in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Compared with the same trauma-exposed controls (n = 108), gene-expression profiles of PTSD patients with similar clinical symptoms and matched adult trauma exposure but different childhood adverse events (n = 32 and 29) were almost completely nonoverlapping (98%).

These differences on the level of individual transcripts were paralleled by the enrichment of several distinct biological networks between the groups. Moreover, these gene-expression changes were accompanied and likely mediated by changes in DNA methylation in the same loci to a much larger proportion in the childhood abuse (69%) vs. the non-child abuse-only group (34%).

This study is unique in providing genome-wide evidence of distinct biological modifications in PTSD in the presence or absence of exposure to childhood abuse.

The findings that nonoverlapping biological pathways seem to be affected in the two PTSD groups and that changes in DNA methylation appear to have a much greater impact in the childhood-abuse group might reflect differences in the pathophysiology of PTSD, in dependence of exposure to childhood maltreatment.

These results contribute to a better understanding of the extent of influence of differences in trauma exposure on pathophysiological processes in stress-related psychiatric disorders and may have implications for personalized medicine.

Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.2270

 

McGowan, P. O., Sasaki, A., D’alessio, A. C., Dymov, S., Labonté, B., Szyf, M., … & Meaney, M. J. (2009). Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature neuroscience12(3), 342.

 

Maternal care influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat through epigenetic programming of glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide.

We examined epigenetic differences in a neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) promoter between postmortem hippocampus obtained from suicide victims with a history of childhood abuse and those from either suicide victims with no childhood abuse or controls.

We found decreased levels of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA, as well as mRNA transcripts bearing the glucocorticoid receptor 1F splice variant and increased cytosine methylation of an NR3C1promoter. Patch-methylated NR3C1 promoter constructs that mimicked the methylation state in samples from abused suicide victims showed decreased NGFI-A transcription factor binding and NGFI-A–inducible gene transcription.

These findings translate previous results from rat to humans and suggest a common effect of parental care on the epigenetic regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression.

Genome-wide Epigenetic Regulation by Early-Life Trauma

 

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/1211984

doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2287

Labonté, B., Suderman, M., Maussion, G., Navaro, L., Yerko, V., Mahar, I., … & Turecki, G. (2012). Genome-wide epigenetic regulation by early-life trauma. Archives of general psychiatry69(7), 722-731.

Abstract

Context Our genome adapts to environmental influences, in part through epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation. Variations in the quality of the early environment are associated with alterations in DNA methylation in rodents, and recent data suggest similar processes in humans in response to early-life adversity.

Objective To determine genome-wide DNA methylation alterations induced by early-life trauma.

Design Genome-wide study of promoter methylation in individuals with severe abuse during childhood.

Patients, Setting, and Main Outcome Measures Promoter DNA methylation levels were profiled using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by microarray hybridization in hippocampal tissue from 41 French-Canadian men (25 with a history of severe childhood abuse and 16 control subjects). Methylation profiles were compared with corresponding genome-wide gene expression profiles obtained by messenger RNA microarrays. Methylation differences between groups were validated on neuronal and nonneuronal DNA fractions isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. Functional consequences of site-specific promoter methylation were assessed by luciferase assays.

Results We identified 362 differentially methylated promoters in individuals with a history of abuse compared with controls. Among these promoters, 248 showed hypermethylation and 114 demonstrated hypomethylation. Validation and site-specific quantification of DNA methylation in the 5 most hypermethylated gene promoters indicated that methylation differences occurred mainly in the neuronal cellular fraction. Genes involved in cellular/neuronal plasticity were among the most significantly differentially methylated, and, among these, Alsin (ALS2) was the most significant finding. Methylated ALS2 constructs mimicking the methylation state in samples from abused suicide completers showed decreased promoter transcriptional activity associated with decreased hippocampal expression of ALS2 variants.

Conclusion Childhood adversity is associated with epigenetic alterations in the promoters of several genes in hippocampal neurons.